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2 – The second source of the period is the work by The Venerable Bede. He is called British Herodotus, the father of English history. He entered the monastery at the age of seven. Never travelling further than
"The Loss of
Now let’s see what Gildas and Bede say about the appearance of newcomers in
After the Romans had left the country the local population was divided in two groups. There were the southern Celts or the Britons or the Romanized Celts and "wild Celts”, Scots and Picts, who lived in the Mounties and didn’t follow the Roman traditions. Scots and Picts raided lands of the Britons. One of the British kings Vortigern invited German tribes from the continent to fight against Scots and Picts. He promised them natural pay and some lands for their military help. It was in 449. So the new people came as the hirelings. First they came in 3 ships, led by 3 brothers. The senior was called Hengist. The Germans fulfilled their mission. But afterwards they didn't want to leave, they liked the country and called their people to
By the end of the 6th century the Anglo-Saxons organized 7 kingdoms in
The British kings Vortigern invited German tribes from the continent to fight against Scots and Picts. They came in 3 ships, led by 3 brothers. They liked the country and called the tribes of the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes to it. They killed the Celts or drove them to the mountains. The A-S organized 7 states in modern England
Now we shall see what the modern historians say using also the archeological sourses.
But before remind the story of three brothers, invited to
It’s difficult not to notice the resemblance between the story of "the appeal upon Varangians" and the Vortigern’s appeal upon the Anglo-Saxsons.
It shows the legendary, folklore character of the Gildas’s and Bede’s stories. The modern historians draw another picture
The coming of the Germans was the part of "the great transmigration of peoples”. The Germans began to permeate as far as the Romans escaped. They came from the Jutland, the peninsula, where modern
The modern scholars don’t deny the fact that the Anglo-Saxons were invaded by the Celtic kings. But it was only one of the reasons, that they came to
The modern scholars agree with the medieval writers that the tribes of the Angles and the Jutes came. But they deny the existence of the Saxons. The newcomers called themselves the Angles, they never used the name of Saxons. The Romans used both names for the same people. They produced the word from "a sax” - a kind of a short sword.
They meant that the Angles were warlike people, using saxes. So they called them “the people of the saxes” or “the Saxons”. So the Saxons didn’t exist as any separate group, it was the Latin name of the Angles. The Saxons were a historical myth.
The modern historians say that the Germans came from the Jutland (modern
As for the Angles they didn’t only existed, but also gave the new name to the country – Which one? -
- What was the etymology of the name "the Angles"?
- What does it mean literally?
When I was a little girl it seemed to me, that the word “Англия” was similar to word “игла”. It occurred to be really so. It has a similar root with Russian “игла”.
The root “ang-” is an ancient Indo-European one, common in Russian, English, Latin and the others. It has the meaning “sharp item”. “The Angles” literally means “the sharp items” or “the fishing hooks”.
The Angles came from
They called themselves “the fishers”, people using the fishing hooks, which sounded as “the angles”. The verb “to angle” in modern English means “to fish” (with the rod).
In such way were formed the names of the countries in the north-western
The root “ang-” means “sharp item”, “The Angles” - “the sharp items” or “the fishing hooks”, England - “the country of fishmen”
Written sources describe the permeation of Angles as a conquest and a catastrophe for the Britons. In the struggle with the cruel invaders they were partly killed and partly driven out into
But the modern historians hesitate about this conception. The evidence of archaeology shows no sudden change in everyday life. It testifies that the previous population remained in their places. The Celts were not driven out of the lowland known now as
According to a recent study of the
So modern scholars consider the Angles to be in minority. The greater part of the pre-English inhabitants of
The newcomers were not more than 4-6 %. How could they conquer the whole country? Modern historians give an answer. The newcomers conquered the Romanized regions. The traditions of political and military self-help were absent there. And Romanised Britain subdued. Being influenced by newcomers it became
The A-S conquered the Romanized regions, it became
The newcomers created the states, the political organization. They divided the land into administrative areas called "shires" (compare - to “share"). Their heads were called "share reeves" “the heads of the shires”.
Which word has derived from it? - Sheriff
Anglo-Saxons weren't only the invaders and gathers of the taxes. They began to drain the wet land and taught the natives to do it. So the marshy lands dimensioned and the farmed land increased, it might have tended even the growth of the Celtic population, not the extermination.
So we may say that Anglo-Saxons influenced economy, established states but, first of all, they influenced language. The language of the
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