The scientific **works** which brought **glory** to Newton were written **in Cambridge**. Among them was his main book - **"The Principles"**. When Newton worked on the book, he slept for five hours a day and had **a meal** only when he was **reminded** of it.
In 1691 there was **a fire** in his house. The main part of manuscripts was lost. Newton had a **temporary madness**. However, biographers consider another reason to be the main in his illness. It was his **long **intellectual **hard working**[1].
In some months Newton **recovered**. His **friend**, the Minister of Finance, invited Newton to London to become a head of the **Mint**. Newton agreed and moved to London. The last **thirty** years of his life he spent in London. At that time, after a civil war, England was **flooded **with false money. A financial reform was necessary. The task was **to produce** **such coins** which could not be **forged **easily. Newton’s friend hoped for Newton’s knowledge of metallurgy and the mechanic. Newton **solved **a task. The mint began to work **eight times** quicker than before. **Disguised**, Newton visited bars and taverns and gathered much information about the **ways of forgery**. The coinage was **protected **from forgery. In a short time **so many** coins were produced that all the coins in the country were **changed in a week**. The successful financial reform was one of the reasons which have defined **economic prosperity** of England **in XVIII** century. And Newton was involved in it. Since then, this reform has become a **classical example** of successful financial reform in the text-books on economics.
The last 20 years of his life Newton lived in London in the **home** of the **niece**. He was then the **head of the Royal** society – the English Academy of science.
1)Newton’s discoveries: sense and significance
2) Harvey: discovering circulation
3) Christopher Wren and the development of architecture
__1)Newton’s discoveries: sense and significance__
And now we shall speak about the **sense and significance** of Newton’s discoveries and about the ways, they were done.
1 - The most significant achievement of Newton was the **law of universal gravitation**, which shows **how things move** in the world. Sometimes he is told **to have discovered** the law of universal gravitation. It wasn’t so. The other man formulated the law. Newton gave the **mathematical** **proof **of the law. It was important, but the more important fact was that since that time it has **become possible to speak** about nature with the help **of mathematics**. Before Newton scientists only **described **nature and its laws, they told like **tale** about it. Since Newton’s works the way to speak **exactly **has appeared, the way to **count** things. It was the turning point of the world science. The modern technology is the result of it. **In brief**, Newton used the language of mathematics for physics. So let’s speak about this **turning point** in **more details**.
There were **three questions** which preceded the discovery.
First two were put in antiquity. The first question was
- Why do **point masses** **fall **to the Earth? – The answer was also **given **in antiquity: because point masses **attract each other**
The Second question was
- Why does the **Moon not fall** to the Earth, but also does **not go away**?
There was **no answer** for that question
The **third** question had **arisen shortly before** Newton. The German scientist Iogann **Kepler showed**, that planets **rotate** around the Sun by the orbits in the form of** ellipse**. The question was - **why?** There also was **no answer** for that question
**Many** scientists **thought** about these riddles. At last **some** of them in the XVII century **came** to the **same** idea. There is a **single force** in the Universe, the **main **force, which **moves** **all the objects**: the sun, the moon, and the planets. The same force **makes** the objects **fall **on the ground. One of the scientists guessed the **formula** **to calculate **the force
^{m}_{1}^{ m}_{2 }Numerator
F = _______ Denominator
r^{2}
**product** of the two masses of objects devided into (reciprocal to)
the **square distance** between the two objects
The **name of** the scientist who **suggested** it was **Robert Hooke**. He was an outstanding scientist in different spheres, **physicist **first of all. More than **500** discoveries and inventions are attributed to him, among them inventing of **microscope** and discovering of the **cell structure** of plants. Hooke **gave** the formula of the gravitation law, which allowed to explain **the ellipse rotation** of planets, of the Moon, and generally movement. But Hooke, as far as the other scientists wasn’t **able** to prove the formula. It **remained** only a supposition.
**The story of the proving** of that formula, ant at the same time the story of the **turning point** of the science and the most famous scientific book, **“The Principles”** of Newton began in one of London **coffee-houses** in **1683**.
**Once** three scientists, who were the members of the Royal society, were **having a dinner **after the meeting of the sociery. People speak about different things while having a dinner. They were discussing the movement of planets. Their names were **Edmond Halley, Robert Hooke and Christopher Wren**. You know about Hooke and Wren, I’ll tell **about Halley**.
He was also an **outstanding** scientist and made a lot in **astronomy, mathematics, geography**. But for the majority of people his **name is connected** with Halley comet. For many centuries people noticed the **extremely bright** commets. They were described in many ancient and medieval **chronicles** of different countries. For example such comet was seen on the day of the battle **at Hastings** when William became the Conqueror. He was Halley who guessed that it was the same comet. He **compared **the chronicles and suggested that **the same** comet returned and was seen in sky **each 76** years. The observed the comet and **predicted** its coming back in more than 50 years. Many years after it came and it was both the proving of Halley’s prediction and the gravitation theory. The brightest comet of the sky got the name of Halley. It is considered that each person can see Halley’s comet at least once a life.
So Wren Halley and Hooke were having dinner.
And Wren **offered 40** shillings for fun to the person **who would prove** the formula of gravitation with the help of mathematics. 40 shillings in those days were not a great sum, it was **usual **
**wages** for two weeks. **Hooke** told, that he **had already found** the proof, but does not wish to tell it **not to deprive **the others a pleasure to make the same.
As to Halley, he **couldn’t stop** thinking about the problem. Не went to Cambridge to discuss this theme with Newton. Newton told that he knew the proof of the law of gravitation and **showed** **the ready book** describing the system of the world. Halley read it and was **delighted**. But Newton has **refused **to publish his work. Newton was the genius, and some strange features of its behaviour cannot be explained.
It is necessary to tell about an **exclusive role** which has played Halley in the fate of Newton’s work. If not Halley it might not have been published. Halley **managed to persuade** Newton publishing the book. And he was Halley who **gave money** for the publication, in spite of he was not a rich person.
But the **new** **problem **arose. After two first volumes had appeared, the physicist Robert **Hooke declared**, that it was he **who** had **informed **Newton about the formula of the law. Hooke was **offended**, that Newton had **not** even **mentioned** his name.
Newton answered that it was an **easy** thing **to invent** formulas. But it was **difficult to prove** them with mathematics. He told that the third volume would be without Hooke’s name or it wouldn’t be at all. And **once more** Halley managed to persuade Newton. He mentioned the name of Hooke in the 3 volume and thus his main work was published.
So, the historians of the science say: the **main merit** of Newton wasn’t the concept of gravitation. It was the **mathematical proof** of the formula of the law. It wasn’t easy. **On the way** of proving the law, Newton **put forward** some other very important ideas. He created the **new language** of mathematics and coined such terms as **weight** and **force**
Today it **seems** to us, that they **have always** existed. But it wasn’t so, they were thought out by Newton. In order to prove the law of gravitation, Newton formulated **the laws of movement**. All modern physics and technics **are based** on them.
As for **Hooke**, modern historians of science recognize, that he **could** **have informed** Newton about the formula of the law and gave him a material for reflections.
Newton did not wish to recognize it. **For 35** years **Hooke** was a **head **of the Royal society. After his death **Newton** became his **successor**. And his first step in a new role was **the destruction** of all the papers and **portraits **of Hooke. Now the Royal society has portraits **of all **its** chairmen**, except the first one, Robert Hooke.
Thus, Newton was the greatest scientist but he was **not an ideal** man.
Newton proved the law of gravitation **for Solar** system. It was not clear then, if it concerned all space. **In** the **XX **century the scientists **proved **that it was **universal**. Only after that the law received the name of universal.
There is a well-known legend about **an apple** which **had fallen** before Newton and **made** him **discover** the law of gravitation. The legend says, that once Newton saw a falling apple in the garden and thought: “**The same force** which made the apple to fall **stretches **up to **the Moon**. It exists not only on Earth, but in the whole solar system”.
Neither Newton, nor his contemporaries told this legend. For the **first **time it was told by French philosopher **Voltaire**. He visited England **after **Newton’s death, was impressed strongly by his works and told about them on the continent. Voltaire wrote, that she was the niece of Newton **Katharine**, who had told him about the apple. In Katharine’s family Newton lived for last twenty years. The scholars do not exclude, that Newton himself **knew nothing** about the apple, and this legend was invented by Voltaire .
2 - In the other field, in mathematics Newton created the **methods of differential and integral calculus** which were the **new language** of modern natural sciences
**What **was **the significance** of the method**?** In the nature almost all the processes **do not go on directly**. Planets **rotate** by ellipses, **communication** between phenomena too is described **by curve**. The new Method of Newton **allowed to describe** natural processes with the help of mathemetics.
At the same time the **same ideas** were put forward by outstanding German scientist Gottfried **Leibniz**. The **dispute arose** who was the first. Modern historians of a science came to the conclusion, that Newton had deduced the method **some years earlier**. But Leibniz published his work, and Newton **didn’t publidh**. So it was the work of Leibniz which had the practical value.
2 - In physiciss Newton also discovered, that **white light** consisted **of the other** colors. It made possible to understand the **chemical compound **of stars on distance
3 - Newton was also the inventor of the **reflecting telescope** or the telescope using mirrors. Such kind of telescopes are **still remains the best** in studying space.
Newton died in 1727. The inscription on his tomb in Westminster Abby called his mind “**almost divine**”
Outstanding French scientist Lagranzh wrote: «**Newton**** was the greatest** genius from all ever existed, and the happiest one, for only once it is allowed to the person to discover the system of the world».
*The main merit of Newton the mathematical proof of the law of gravitation. On the way of proving he created the methods of differential and integral calculation, which have become the new language of modern science. Halley could persuade Newton publishing the book. There were discussions for the authorship of the discoveries with Hooke and Leibniz. Voltaire was the first to tell the legend of the apple, and probably he had invented it* |